Aluminum extrusion is a type of plastic forming process method. A strong press to the aluminum billet placed in the mold cavity (or extrusion barrel), forcing the aluminum billet to undergo directional plastic deformation and extruding from the hole of the extrusion die to obtain semi-finished products of the desired section, size, and mechanical properties.
Aluminum Extrusion │ Classification
According to the metal-plastic flow direction, aluminum extrusion can be divided into the following types:
▸Forward Extrusion: During production, the direction of aluminum metal flow is the same as the direction of motion of the punch.
▸Backward extrusion: During production, the direction of aluminium metal flow is opposite to the direction of motion of the punch.
▸Composite Forward-Backward extrusion: During production, part of the aluminum metal flows in the same direction as the punch, and the other part flows in the opposite direction to the punch.
▸Radial extrusion: during production, the aluminium metal flow direction is 90 degrees from the direction of the punch movement.
Most aluminum extrusion manufacturers including FONNOV ALUMINIUM use a forward extrusion method to obtain aluminum with the desired cross-sectional shape through a specific die tooling.
Aluminum Extrusion │ Process Characters
- Improve the deformation ability of aluminum. The aluminum alloy has good extrusion properties and is particularly suitable for extrusion processing, and can obtain a large deformation amount by various extrusion processes.
- The comprehensive quality of the products is high. Extrusion can improve the microstructure of aluminum and improve its mechanical properties. Compared with processing methods such as rolling and forging, extruded products have high dimensional accuracy and good surface quality.
- A wide range of products. Extrusion not only can produce tubes, rods, and wires with simple cross-section shapes but also can produce solid and hollow profiles with very complicated cross-section shapes, variable-section profiles with progressively varying sections along the length of the product sections, many of which are Shaped articles cannot be formed by other plastic processing methods. Extruded products are also available in a wide range of sizes, from super-large tubes and profiles with a diameter of 500-1000 mm to ultra-small precision profiles with a cross-section size.
- Great production flexibility. Extrusion has great flexibility, and it is possible to produce shapes, sizes, and varieties of products on the same equipment by simply changing the mold, and the replacement of the mold is simple, convenient, time-consuming, and efficient.
Aluminum Extrusion │ Alloys For Production
The aluminum alloys that used for aluminum extrusion production are classified into 8 categories according to their different performance and usage requirements.
- 1000 series pure aluminum
It is Industrial pure aluminum with excellent processability, corrosion resistance, surface treatment, and electrical conductivity, but low strength. 1000 series pure aluminum(1050, 1060, 1070) is mainly used in household goods, electrical products, medicine and food packaging, transmission and distribution materials.
- 2000AL-Cu (aluminum-copper) alloy
It(2A11, 2A12, 2A14, 2024, 2017) is mainly applied to large components and brackets with high Cu content and poor corrosion resistance.
- 3000AL-Mn (aluminum manganese) alloy
Same corrosion resistance but higher strength compared with pure aluminum. welding performance is good. It(3003) is widely used in daily necessities, building materials, devices and so on.
- 4000AL-Si (aluminum-silicon) alloy
It is mainly used as welding material for its low melting point (575-630 degrees), good fluidity and fluidity.
- 5000AL-Mg (aluminum-magnesium) alloy
It is with good corrosion resistance, weldability, and surface gloss. By controlling the content of Mg, alloys of different strength levels can be obtained. Alloy with less Mg is for decorative materials, advanced devices. Alloy with high Mg welding components for ships and vehicle chemical plants.
- 6000AL-Mg-Si alloy
The Mg2Si precipitation hardening heat treatment can strengthen the alloy. It has good corrosion resistance, moderate strength, and excellent hot workability, and thus 6000 series aluminum alloy (6005, 6060, 6061, 6063, 6082, etc) is widely used as an extruded material and has good formability and high hardness by quenching. It is used in a large number of building profiles and is also the most important material for general industry.
- 7000AL-Zn-Mg-Cu (aluminum zinc-magnesium-copper) alloy
high-strength aluminum alloy and AL-Zn-Mg alloy for welding components
It is with high strength, excellent welding, and quenching performance, the disadvantage is that the stress corrosion cracking resistance is poor, and it needs to be improved by appropriate heat treatment. 7000 series aluminum alloy(7A04, 7022, 7075) is mainly used for aircraft and sporting goods, welding structural materials for railway vehicles.
- 8000AL-LI (aluminum-lithium) alloy
The biggest feature is that the density is lower than 7000 series 8%~9%, high rigidity, high strength, and lightweight, mainly used for military purposes such as aircraft, missiles, and engines.
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